Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Hypoxia- But Not Anoxia-Induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Activation in a von Hippel-Lindau- and Mitochondria-Dependent Manner

.. Blood pressure, heart rate, and peripheral O 2 saturation (SpO 2 ) during experiments were
measured with a tail-cuff sphygmomanometer (model MK-1030; Muromachi Kikai, Tokyo, Japan)
(41) and a MouseOx pulse oximeter (Starr Life Sciences, Oakmont, PA) (5). At the end of …
Aims: In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized gaseous molecule that acts as an important signaling molecule in the living body. Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to respond to intracellular reduced oxygen (O2) availability, which is regulated by an elaborate balance between O2 supply and demand. However, the effect of H2S on HIF-1 activity under hypoxic conditions is largely unknown in mammalian cells. In this study, we tried to elucidate the effect of H2S on hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation adopting cultured cells and mice. Results: The H2S donors sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide in pharmacological concentrations reversibly reduced cellular O2 consumption and inhibited hypoxia- but not anoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation and expression of genes downstream of HIF-1 in established cell lines. H2S did not affect HIF-1 activation induced by the HIF-α hydroxylases inhibitors desferrioxamine or CoCl2. Experimental evidence adopting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)- or mitochondria-deficient cells indicated that H2S did not affect neosynthesis of HIF-1α protein but destabilized HIF-1α in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that exogenously administered H2S inhibited HIF-1–dependent gene expression in mice. Innovation: For the first time, we show that H2S modulates intracellular O2 homeostasis and regulates activation of HIF-1 and the subsequent gene expression induced by hypoxia by using an in vitro system with established cell lines and an in vivo system in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate that H2S inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 203–216.