Pharmacology & Toxicology


Pharmacological treatment with mirtazapine rescues cortical atrophy and respiratory deficits in MeCP2 null mice

Loss of MeCP2 (Methyl CpG binding protein 2) in Rett syndrome (RTT) causes brain weight decrease, shrinkage of the cortex with reduced dendritic arborization, behavioral abnormalities, seizures and cardio-respiratory complications. The observed monoamine neurotransmitters reduction in RTT suggested antidepressants as a possible therapy. We treated MeCP2-null mice from postnatal-day 28 for two weeks with desipramine, […]

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Toxicodynamics of rigid polystyrene microparticles on pulmonary gas exchange in mice: Implications for microemboli-based drug delivery systems

.. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in the blood was monitored on the mouse’s thigh using a MouseOx® pulse oximeter (STARR Life Sciences, Oakmont, PA) at 1 and 3 day pre-MP exposure and 1, 3, 5 and 7 day post-MP exposure. … The toxicodynamic relationship between the number and size of pulmonary microemboli resulting from […]

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Activation of PKCα or PKCε as an approach to increase morphine tolerance in respiratory depression and lethal overdose

Abstract Long-term use of opioids is hindered by respiratory depression and the possibility for fatal overdose in drug abusers. This is due to higher levels of tolerance that develops against antinociception than to respiratory depression. Identifying important mechanisms that would increase morphine respiratory depression and overdose tolerance could lead to the safer use of opioids. […]

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Activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC)α or PKCε as an Approach to Increase Morphine Tolerance in Respiratory Depression and Lethal Overdose

Abstract Long-term use of opioids is hindered by respiratory depression and the possibility for fatal overdose in drug abusers. This is attributed to higher levels of tolerance that develops against antinociception than to respiratory depression. Identifying important mechanisms that would increase morphine respiratory depression and overdose tolerance could lead to the safer use of opioids. […]

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Postnatal morphine administration alters hippocampal development in rats

Morphine is frequently used as an analgesic and sedative in preterm infants. Adult rats exposed to morphine have an altered hippocampal neurochemical profile and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To evaluate whether neonatal rats are similarly affected, rat pups were injected twice daily with 2 mg/kg morphine or normal saline from […]

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Acute, Sublethal Cyanide Poisoning in Mice Is Ameliorated by Nitrite Alone: Complications Arising from Concomitant Administration of Nitrite and Thiosulfate as an Antidotal Combination

Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from 1 h before until 20 min after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered […]

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